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Corporate Governance And Financial Performance : A Study Of German And U. K. Initial Public Offerings
A study of German and UK financial markets, addressing the relationship between corporate governance, ownership and financial performance in German and UK firms floated in the 1980s. Company micro-data is used to examine the firms' performances over the six years from flotation.
"The decrease in church attendance, the decline of the influence of the church on the masses, the growing tendency towards Sabbath desecration, the extreme moderation of present-day theological conceptions, are conditions upon which the present volume endeavors to throw some light by a psychological discussion of the nature and meaning of public worship.
"In an historical retrospect, the author finds two typical Sabbaths: (1) Recreative, held by the Jews until their captivity, viz., a day of recreation as well as rest. (2) Christian or worship conception, held by later Jews and by Christians, viz., a day for worship as well as rest. A study of the historical conditions that brought about the transition from the 'Recreative' conception to the 'Christian' reveals the psychological states involved in worship. As long as the Jews were prosperous, the ' Recreation' view prevailed, but after the captivity, when misfortunes of all kinds assailed them, a transition to the 'Christian' conception was quickly effected. Believing in Jehovah, they naturally attributed the severity of the conditions of life to His displeasure, and accordingly, in order to win again His favor, they eagerly betook themselves to worship. In humility of spirit they throng the temples and with receptive minds receive instruction in spiritual and practical life. Thus are open immense possibilities of moral reformation by means of which the race can better adapt itself to its environment; this is the great function of the Sabbath of the 'Christian' type. In brief, while the 'Recreative' Sabbath aims simply to preserve functions already acquired, the 'Christian' conception aims at the establishment of new functions (p. 45). The essential element in producing worship, and the consequent moral reformation (adaptation) is 'adverse environment.' In emphasizing this point an interesting parallel is drawn between organic and mental evolution.
"This conclusion the author confirms by his results obtained by the 'questionnaire' method (203 subjects). The answers to such questions as, "State your reasons for going to church" (personal good 173, duty 140, example 77), "Is it the music, the sermon, prayer, or something else that supplies your need in religious worship?" (sermon 52, prayer 41, music 23, fellowship 1), "Does church-going give you a better idea as to how to live?" (leads to kindness to others 30, singing 26, adoration of God 19, impulse toward a better life 6), show that the great function of religious worship is to secure the moral adjustment of the individual to his environment. These results, while extremely interesting and valuable, would be much more conclusive had they been based on a much larger number of answers than the 203 reported.
"Starbuck's recent religious studies are also cited to show that conversions occur most frequently at the 'age of greatest physical growth,' when the individual is face to face with the new environment of maturity to which he has to adjust himself, and they thus support the author's general position.
"This analysis of public worship enables us to understand present-day conditions. By science and invention man has been able to cope so successfully with his environment that the need of religious worship is not urgent, and so there is a very general tendency to return to the early Jewish conception of a 'Recreative' Sabbath."
-Psychological Review, Volume 8
The book will follow the general outline of the Reader's Guides series. It will begin by setting the work in context, giving a brief biography of Plato, examining his relationship with Socrates, discussing the relationship between the Republic and Plato's other works and introducing the Athenian institutions examined in the Republic. The major themes discussed in the Republic are introduced and discussed in brief, before embarking on a more detailed discussion of the key sections and passages in the Reading the Text section. Here, the author will outline and comment on the claims made in the key passages, suggesting criticism where appropriate and providing questions for further thought. (See Full Contents for further details) A section on Reception and Influence will discuss some of the numerous areas of subsequent thought the Republic has impacted upon, including Aristotle, Plato's influence on Kant's ehtics and Popper's virulent criticism of Plato as an 'enemy of the open society'.
A section on Further Reading will contain advice on various translations of the Republic, a guide to some other useful commentaries on the text and information on books and articles about specific topics.
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